Saturday, 7 September 2013

Solid Waste

Recommended actions - solve 80% of waste problem
  1. Composting for food waste 
  2. Recycle waste through raddiwalah - paper, glass, wood, rubber, metal ...
  3. Recycle through manufacturer - electronic waste

Root cause of the problem
Non-segregation of waste at source - among food waste and non-food waste
Mixing of waste leads to dumping at land fill sites, stinking etc

Problem areas without solution
Incinerator is a very bad solution
Plastic waste - see plastic to oil solution, may lead to harmful gas emission - not using it seems only option
Bio-medical waste - diapers, sanitary napkin and condom and material with body fluids - blood, sputum etc.
Bio-medical waste - medical waste from hospitals


5 types of solid waste:
  1. Food waste (50 - 60% of total waste)
  2. Paper, Cloth, wood, rubber, plastic, metal - recycle (30% of total waste)
  3. Electronic waste
  4. Construction debris
  5. Bio-medical waste
Hazards due to waste/ process of waste management
     To society in general, rag pickers, municipal workers etc.
  1. Hazard due to bio-medical waste - including baby diapers, sanitary napkin, condom and other body fluid e.g. blood, sputum etc. Medical waste as syringe, stained cotton, glass / plastic bottles of medicines
  2. Broken Glass 
Hazards to public health / environment
  1. Worsening public health due to virus, mosquito problem, toxic soil and water due to waste..elaborate
  2. Contamination of underground water, fresh water lakes, rivers, oceans
  3. Burning of waste leads to harmful gas emissions
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Waste Management at household level
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Solution discussion - Composting of food waste
  1. Food waste needs water and air to turn to compost, and 3 months of time
  2. Compost bin should NOT be kept in closed premises - rooms etc, but with at least one side open - balcony etc, the area should be covered out of rain - to keep it at right moisture level
  3. Compost bin should be covered from top to retain right temperature level
  4. Need to churn the waste in compost bin at regular intervals - for air supply to the waste
  5. Initially, to start process of composting - put some old compost - to introduce microorganisms
example by Dailydump.org - 3 clay pots (one over the other) - with small holes and mesh to prevent insects
- trick is right moisture level
        - too wet makes it smelly - should add dry leaves, wood powder etc

        - too dry will not turn into compost - should add water

The compost do not smell if moisture level is right
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Hazardous waste of packaging
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Packaging of chips, chocolates etc are blend of plastic and metal, or paper and aluminum etc - they are not biodegradable, and also not possible to recycle


PIL and manufacturer liability seems to be the only way out

Thursday, 5 September 2013

History of India

See the developments in light of events in Rest of Asia and Europe - specially after 1000 AD - Gazni, Muhammad Gori etc.
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Vikramaditya was a legendary - 1st century BCE - emperor of Ujjain, India, famed for his wisdom, valour and magnanimity. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vikram%C4%81ditya)

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The Gupta Empire - 320 to 550 CE - covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gupta_empire)
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Tomar are a Rajput-Gujjar clan and claim descent from the mythical Chandravanshi dynasty, numbering the Mahabharata warrior Arjuna among their forebears. They ruled in Delhi from around 736CE - 1115CE and also in Gwalior (1438-1486) and Rajasthan

The Tomara dynasty of Delhi lasted until the demise of Anangpal Tomar II, who was responsible for the construction of Lal Kot, a fortified wall around the city, likely in reaction to the raids of Mahmud of Ghazni. Anangpal Tomar II appointed his grandson (daughter's son, and son of King of Ajmer), Prithviraj Chauhan, as the heir-apparent. Some historians believe that Prithvaraj was merely a caretaker king during his grandfather's lifetime. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomara_dynasty)


Anangpal Tomar, or Anangpal I, or Bilan Dev Tomar - 731–36 AD - was a Chandravanshi Puruvanshi Kshatriya, descendant of Samrat Parikshit. He was the first ruler to make ancient Indraprastha (modern-day Delhi) his capital. Tomars briefly ruled at Ujjain after decline of the Raja Bhoj's dynasty. Anangpal I, a chief of Tomara/Tanwar rebuilt his capital in Indra-prastha in 8th Century AD. Tomars of Delhi, Chauhans of Ajmer, Chandelas of Jejakbhakti, Solankis of Gujarat and Gaharwars of Kannauj (Rathores) were the most prominent kings of north India between 7th and 11th century. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anangpal_Tomar)

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Prithviraj Chauhan (1149–1192 CE), was a king of Rajput Chauhan dynasty, who ruled the kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century.

Chauhan was the last independent Hindu king, before Hemu, to sit upon the throne of Delhi.

He succeeded to the throne in 1169 CE at the age of 20, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi which he received from his maternal grandfather Arkpal or Anangpal III of the Tomara dynasty in Delhi. He controlled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana, and unified the Rajputs against Muslim invasions. His elopement in 1175 with Samyukta (Sanyogita), the daughter of Jai Chandra Rathod, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India, and is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Chauhan's court poet and friend, Chand Bardai.

Prithviraj Chauhan defeated the Muslim ruler Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 and set him free as a gesture of mercy. Ghauri attacked for a second time the next year, and Prithviraj was defeated and captured at the Second Battle of Tarain (1192). Sultan Ghauri took Prithviraj to Ghazni and blinded him, legend states that in an archery show, Prithviraj's poet Chand Bardai gave him the physical location of Ghori in the arena via poem and then as Ghori ordered the start of show, Prithviraj shot him dead with a Shabdbhedi-baan. After his defeat Delhi came under the control of Muslim rulers. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prithviraj_Chauhan)
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Shahabuddin Ghori's conquests laid the foundations of Muslim rule in India. Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a former slave (Mamluk) of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_of_Ghor)
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(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mamluk_Sultanate_%28Delhi%29)
1206–1290
The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty) was directed into Northern India by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Turkic general from Central Asia. It was the first of five unrelated dynasties to rule India's Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290. Aybak's tenure as a Ghurid dynasty administrator ranged between 1192 to 1206, a period during which he led invasions into the Gangetic heartland of India and established control over some of the new areas.

Mamluk, literally meaning owned, was a soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam. Mamluks held political and military power most notably in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Iraq, and India. In 1206, Muhammad of Ghor died. He had no child, so after his death, his sultanate was divided into many parts by his slaves (mamluk generals). Mohammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji got Bengal. Qutub-ud-din-Aybak became the sultan of Delhi, and that was the beginning of the Slave dynasty.

Aybak rose to power when a Ghorid superior was assassinated. However, his reign as the Sultan of Delhi was short lived as he died in 1210 and his son Aram Shah rose to the throne, only to be assassinated by Iltutmish in 1211.

The Sultanate under Iltutmish established cordial diplomatic contact with the Abbasid Caliphate between 1228–29 and had managed to keep India unaffected by the invasions of Genghis Khan and his successors. Following the death of Iltutmish in 1236 a series of weak rulers remained in power and a number of the noblemen gained autonomy over the provinces of the Sultanate. Power shifted hands from Rukn ud din Firuz to Razia Sultana until Ghiyas ud din Balban rose to the throne and successfully repelled both external and internal threats to the Sultanate. The Khilji dynasty came into being when Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji overthrew the last of the Slave dynasty rulers, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, the grandson of Balban, and assumed the throne at Delhi.
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1320–1414
The Tughlaq dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin which established a Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its reign started in 1321 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq.

The empire grew under his son and successor Muhammad bin Tughluq, but the latter became notorious for ill-advised policy experiments such as shifting the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad and introducing copper coins without effective regulation against forgery. Tughluqi has as a result become synonym for brilliant if stubborn eccentricity in the Urdu language. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tughlaq_Dynasty)
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